Overview—Marine Fisheries, Tourism, and Climate Impacts: Creating Opportunities for Change
Dawn M. Martin and Marida Hines
Seafood is a critical food source for people around the world, particularly the residents of small island nations who depend upon healthy and abun¬dant fisheries for their survival. More than three billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of protein, and nearly half a billion people derive their income from wild fisheries and fish farming, making seafood the largest traded food commodity in the world.1 Annual per capita fish consumption increased from 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 19.2 kg today, nearly doubling in 50 years.2 On top of this, global population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050,3 putting even more pressure on existing sea¬food supplies. To meet this demand, some have suggested that we must increase wild fisheries extraction as well as aquaculture production.
Unfortunately, the vast majority of wild fisheries are already at their limits. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that 90 percent of ocean fisheries are either fully exploited (61 percent) or overfished (29 percent).4 The FAO report concludes that, on average, stocks of commercially exploited fish declined some 50 per¬cent in just 40 years, from 1970 to 2010, with some species like mackerel and tuna dropping even more precipitously. Climate change compounds these problems, as is already evident in tropical and subtropical regions such as the Caribbean. And well-documented declines of reef systems could have calamitous effects on regional fisheries.
The University of British Columbia’s Nereus Program5 has produced a recent report showing that the global supply of seafood is about to change substantially. Many people will not have access to reliable sources of sea¬food in the future due to climate change-related impacts on oceans. The report asserts that the world needs to aggressively combat rising green¬house gas emissions and improve ocean governance to ensure the future of viable ocean fisheries. While some efforts to strengthen public policy have been made, more work is needed to respond to the complex chal¬lenges currently in play in the ocean and mitigate their impacts on vulner¬able regions of the world, including the Caribbean.
As we describe in this essay, the tourism sector could have an im¬portant role to play in the future of global fisheries. Tourism has the ability to raise awareness, change public opinion, and shift consumer attitudes and behaviors. This in turn can pressure markets, influence policy, and improve the situation for people and economies that depend upon a healthy ocean. Rather than just contributing to the depletion of regional and global fish stocks, tourism can actually help to create demand for sustainable practices that lead to healthier and more sustain¬able fisheries.
Status of Fisheries and Impacts of Climate Change
Recent studies suggest that climate change is increasing stress on oceans already suffering from overfishing, pollution, and destruction of coastal and marine ecosystems.6 Among the largest climate-related stressors are ocean acidification and sea temperature rise, both resulting from increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As the ocean warms and becomes more acidic, ecosystem productivity is reduced, habitats are changed, and many species experience potentially devastating impacts on reproduction and survival.
As sea temperatures rise, ecosystem productivity tends to go down, par¬ticularly in tropical and subtropical regions such as the Caribbean. Some fish migrate to different areas, primarily to cooler waters, and since preda¬tors and prey do not always move in tandem, food chains can be disrupted.7 Species unable to adapt or move may face extinction. Changing ocean tem¬peratures could also have the effect of shifting ocean currents.8 These forces may have been factors in several large-scale and catastrophic fishery crashes, including North Atlantic cod and herring, as well as the Peruvian ancho¬veta, California sardine, and Alaska king crab and pink shrimp. Changing sea currents might also factor into recent fluctuations in salmon numbers.9
Ocean acidification, where increasing amounts of carbon dioxide are making seawater more acidic, makes it difficult for mollusks, crabs, and corals to grow their shells.10 Acidification mostly impacts species with calcareous (calcium carbonate) shells or exoskeletons, including lobsters, mussels, oysters, and other shellfish. Also affected are tiny organisms like pteropods that form the foundation of many marine food webs. Coral reefs, which serve as nurseries for juvenile fish, are among the ecosys¬tems most vulnerable to ocean acidification. Calcification rates of coral reefs are projected to decline by 17 to 35 percent by 2100.11 Freshwater spawning species like salmon are also impacted by ocean acidification, as heightened levels of CO2 cause problems for fish reproduction and also impact digestion, hearing, and smelling, making it more difficult to find food or avoid predators.12
Meanwhile, the physical effects of climate change are also having major impacts on fisheries. An increase in the frequency and severity of ocean storms can damage critical marine habitats like coral reefs, man¬groves, and seagrass beds.13 Coral reefs and other fish nurseries are already being affected by rising sea levels, erosion, changing salinity levels, and changes in precipitation and sediment deposits. Extreme weather can af¬fect the ability of fish to reproduce or migrate to spawning and feeding areas. Storms and other climate change patterns can also impact fishing infrastructure such as boat landing sites, processing facilities, transport routes, fish farms, and fishing communities.14
Aquaculture producers are also seeing impacts from climate-induced changes. Shellfish in particular are highly susceptible to disruptions such as changes in water temperature, lower oxygen levels, and increased acidity. Other climate-related impacts include the risk from more fre¬quent and powerful coastal storms that can destroy offshore and onshore infrastructure such as holding pens and tank facilities. Meanwhile, there has not been adequate investment in aquaculture to grow the industry quickly enough to meet projected food needs.
Image 3.0.1 A goliath grouper, one of the iconic fish species of the Caribbean, is highly susceptible to overfishing and is now protected in some areas15
Responses to Climate Change
Climate change’s observed and predicted impacts on the world’s oceans and fisheries require a response. Most obviously, CO2 emissions must be controlled to reduce the rate and magnitude of ocean warming, sea level rise, acidification, and other changes in ocean properties. Ocean biodi¬versity and habitat must be protected to help marine ecosystems adapt to impacts from climate change and other human-induced stressors. Market systems need to support sustainable practices, but also be flexible enough to react to changes. More coordinated regulations will be needed among international fisheries. For example, as some species move to cooler waters, regulators may have to react quickly to keep resource allocation quotas aligned with new species distributions.
The commercial fishing industry has reacted to reductions in fish popu¬lations mainly by investing in new technology that improves efficiency while refurbishing ships to enable them to travel farther and catch more diverse species. Such enhancements can improve fuel efficiency by allow¬ing fishers to spend more time at sea, and improve product handling, storage, and preservation. Some smaller scale fishers are adapting by expanding their activities into aquaculture and tourism, and joining co¬operatives and other risk-dispersing organizations.
As species available in a given region change, fishers are having to develop new harvesting strategies (for example, switching target species and gear), find ways to reduce bycatch of species new to their fishing grounds, and transition to new types of employment as commercial fish¬ing becomes less economically viable. These changes are beginning to affect land-based support services from ports to processing plants. This may eventually force occupational changes upon whole regions and could increase social inequities and other problems, such as have been docu¬mented for North Atlantic cod fishing communities.16
Aquaculture, which applies commercial farming practices such as holding pens and artificial inputs to the raising of finfish and shellfish, holds great promise for delivering high-quality protein to a growing world population. However, aquaculture can also be impacted by climate change, as described above. Shellfish farmers are adapting in a variety of ways, including moving their shellfish to sites with cold water upwells, or lowering cages into cooler water. Future climate-related impacts, such as increased competition for water or flooding of coastal areas, may ulti¬mately affect aquaculture operations and could lead to conflict between different sectors reliant on this resource.
Government and Nonprofit Responses
Most government, academic, and NGO adaptation programs in the sea¬food sector, meanwhile, have addressed resource depletion more directly than climate change. Those efforts are generally aimed at promoting bio¬logical resilience, rebuilding stocks, and reducing overcapacity in fishing fleets. For positive change to happen on the water, however, one of the first steps will be to encourage the seafood sector to focus explicitly on climate change in addition to combating the depletion of fisheries.
Government policy and regulatory decision-makers have tended to focus on protecting fish resources by implementing quotas and using ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine reserves, fishery improve¬ment projects (FIPs), and strategies to prevent habitat loss such as destruc¬tion of mangroves (which serve as fish nurseries) are increasing globally. Governments and academic institutions are supporting research that can improve fisheries management in the face of climate change. This includes examining the effect of sea temperature rise on species and their prey, predators, and competitors. The public sector can also play a role by im¬proving climate change research, responding to disasters, and improving communication and information sharing on climate change and fisheries.
Tourism Sector Response
There are encouraging signs from both large corporations and small local businesses that the tourism industry is stepping into a new role as ambas¬sadors for sustainability. Several trends show resourcefulness in respond¬ing to the challenges of climate change and fisheries. A growing locavore (based on foods from the surrounding area) seafood movement tied to the hospitality industry can help reduce the carbon footprint of fishing and lead to more sustainable practices. Many chefs have begun to promote sustainable seafood and have taken unsustainable items such as shark fin soup off their menus.
Resort restaurants are well positioned to educate consumers about the benefits of sustainable seafood, including consumption of more abundant or invasive species, as well as nonfish seafood such as seaweed, while also bringing to light the impacts of climate change on vacation and resort des¬tinations. Some hotels and resorts are already implementing sustainable seafood policies and training their staff to source from local fishers, bring¬ing economic drivers into their communities and providing local stories about the fish that are served. For example, Marriott International’s Future Fish program is designed to help the company’s hotels source, cook, and serve sustainable seafood.17 Morgan’s Rock Hacienda and Ecolodge in Nicaragua features sustainable seafood including shrimp from a local organic shrimp farm and catch from local fishermen who use traditional fishing methods in nearby waters.
Promoting sustainable tourism to fishing villages, and familiarizing visitors with the fishing lifestyle, could help provide economic alternatives for communities while building awareness of this sector. The locavore movement could be expanded using such mechanisms as community supported fisheries (CSFs) to support and tell the story of local and sustainably caught or farmed seafood. Where possible, commercial and recreational fishers should work together to support sustainable fisheries management. Local restaurants, resorts, and retail stores could develop brands that focus on fish from responsibly managed local sources, such as the Gulf of Maine Research Institute’s Out of the Blue and Trawl to Table programs. A number of other seafood certification programs around the world could be looked at as examples for the Caribbean.
Tourism as a Tool for Change
Historically, the conservation community has not fully utilized the so¬cial sciences to help understand and modify human behavior and beliefs regarding climate change.18 Only about 2 percent of all climate change research dollars are spent on changing human behavior, even though it is widely recognized as the most important factor in dealing with this issue.19 Research shows that for information about climate change to be absorbed by the public, it must be communicated with appropriate language and narrative storytelling made vivid through imagery and experiential sce¬narios, balanced with scientific information delivered by trusted messen¬gers.20 While this approach has not been fully applied to ocean education, it has been successfully applied to other aspects of climate change.
It is difficult to explain how important the ocean is to our well-being, or how fragile it actually is. The public generally has an outdated perception of the ocean, viewing it as immense, bountiful, inexhaustible, infinitely resilient, and impervious to human influence. The media and conserva¬tion organizations also tend to present doom and gloom scenarios laden with jargon that the general public does not understand. As a result, the information and messages conveyed either do not resonate with the pub¬lic, or scare people into inaction.
Most people also experience marine conservation issues from a dis¬tance, having little personal experience with oceans or fisheries to draw upon, and seeing things like climate change as someone else’s problem, or a problem for the future. As a result, threats to the ocean, including the complex, largely invisible, and seemingly overwhelming effects of climate change, are difficult to convey in a way that resonates with the public and that they can easily understand. Despite the dominance of the ocean on our planet, only a small percentage of people have actually seen the underwater environment. As social science has shown, however, it is often emotional responses rather than scientific theories or abstract models that lead to behavioral changes.
The tourism industry can serve a valuable role by connecting people to their surroundings, evoking an emotional response that leads to con¬servation action. By providing access to ocean environments and fish¬eries, marine tourism provides an opportunity to advance sustainability through behavioral change. The tourism industry can also help create more sustainable fisheries by joining a comprehensive strategic commu¬nications effort to transform attitudes and behaviors related to climate change, overfishing, and depletion of marine species. More research is needed, however, to determine how tourism and fisheries can work to¬gether to influence the opinions, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers.
Tourism in the Caribbean is well placed to create meaningful change if it joins with the fishing industry and local communities to use strate¬gic communication methods to change hearts and minds. Tourists can be influenced by strategic messaging focused on protecting the places they choose to visit and enjoy while on vacation. A comprehensive plan rooted in these strategies would be extremely beneficial in identifying and implementing action steps that can be taken across sectors, and through¬out the islands in the Caribbean, to address these issues.
A key first step would be to synthesize and address human psychologi¬cal and behavioral dimensions with respect to conservation of the ocean and the life it supports by: (a) engaging experts in fields such as psychol¬ogy, anthropology, communications, marketing and branding, economics, history, and environmental and marine science and policy; (b) illuminat¬ing the motivators of human behavior to improve and implement targeted marine conservation, management and policy efforts; and (c) developing practical approaches for modifying behavior with respect to marine envi¬ronments and critical issues such as ocean acidification. This strategy could help bridge the gap that now exists between ocean issues and the commu¬nities impacted by climate change, connecting them in an intelligent and strategic way, and filtering the noise that permeates our society. It would also help ensure that targeted audiences receive clear, meaningful, and un¬derstandable messages that will resonate and lead to meaningful change.
Compared to other animal protein sources, seafood is a highly effi¬cient food source with a relatively low carbon footprint.21 For this reason, the fishing industry, as well as related tourism sectors that rely on fisher¬ies, could be on the front lines of an education and outreach effort regard¬ing climate change. In so doing, they could position seafood as the best option for animal protein both in terms of human health and in its com¬paratively small contribution to climate change. And they could help the many coastal communities that rely on both fishing and tourism, in the Caribbean and beyond, to weather the coming storm of climate change.
1. Statistics in this section are drawn largely from: Worldwide Fund for Nature. (2015). Living Blue Planet Report: Species, Habitats and Human Well-being. London, UK: WWF International and Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London. Available at: http://assets .wwf.org.uk/downloads/living_blue_planet_report_2015.pdf.
2. FAO. (2014). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3720e.pdf.
3. United Nations. (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Divi¬sion. Available at: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files /Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf.
4. FAO. (2014). Op cit.
5. University of British Columbia. (2016). Nereus Program. Available at: http://www.nereusprogram.org/.
6. Donald Scavia, John Field, Donald Boesch, Robert Buddemeier, Virginia Burkett, Daniel Cayan, Michael Fogarty, Mark Harwell, Robert Howarth, Curt Mason, Denise Reed, Thomas Royer, Asbury Sallenger, and James Titus. (2002). Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems. Estuaries, 25(2), 149–164. Avail¬able at: http://tenaya.ucsd.edu/~cayan/Pubs/66_Scavia_Estuaries _2002.pdf.
7. Marine Stewardship Council. (2016). Climate Change and Fish. Available at: https://www.msc.org/healthy-oceans/the-oceans-today /climate-change.
8. Stefan Rahmstorf. (2006). Thermohaline Ocean Circulation. In
S.A. Elias, ed. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Available at: http://pik-potsdam.de/~stefan/Publications /Book_chapters/rahmstorf_eqs_2006.pdf.
9. Terry Johnson. (2012). Fisheries Adaptations to Climate Change. SeaGrant Alaska. Available at: http://seagrant.noaa.gov/Portals/0 /Documents/what_we_do/climate/AK%20SG%20Fisheries %20Adaptations%20to%20Climate%20Change.pdf.
10. Michael Casey. (2015). Climate change could drain global seafood supplies. CBS News online. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/ news/global-seafood-supplies-may-be-hit-by-climate-change/.
11. Donald Scavia, et al. (2002). Op cit.
12. Mark Fischetti. (2012). Ocean Acidification Can Mess with a Fish’s Mind. Scientific American, September 27, 2012. Available at: http:// www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-acidification-can-m/.
13. WWF. (2014). Op cit.
14. U. Rashid Sumaila, William Cheung, Vicky Lam, Daniel Pauly, and Samuel Herrick. (2011). Climate Change Impacts on the Biophysics and Economics of World Fisheries. Nature Climate Change, November 11, 2011. Available at: http://vintage.joss.ucar .edu/cwg/july12/Sumaila_2011.pdf.
15. Image Source: Bill Goodwin, NOAA.
16. Dean Bavington. (2010). Managed Annihilation: An Unnatural His¬tory of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse. Vancouver: UBC Press.
17. Amy Sung. (2011). Marriott International’s ‘Future Fish’ steers menu and chef choices. FSR Magazine. Available at: https://www .fsrmagazine.com/content/marriott-international-s-future-fish -steers-menu-and-chef-choices.
18. Robert Gifford. (2008). Psychology’s Essential Role in Alleviating the Impacts of Climate Change. Canadian Psychology, 49(4), 273–80.
19. Center for Research on Environmental Decisions. (2009). The Psy¬chology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public. New York: Center for Research on Environmental Decisions, Columbia University.
20. Center for Research on Environmental Decisions. (2009). Op cit.
21. Eartheasy. (2011). Eco-impact of wild seafood less than that of poultry, beef. Eartheasy: Solutions for Sustainable Living. Available at: http://learn.eartheasy.com/2011/02/eco-impact-of-wild-seafood -less-than-that-of-poultry-beef/.
Case Study 3.1 Masyarakat dan Perikanen Indonesia (MDPI) Foundation: Supporting Coastal Fishing Community Resilience Through Tourism
by Marida Hines and Dawn M. Martin
Many Caribbean and other small island developing nations face chal¬lenges to building financially sound, sustainable, small-scale artisanal fisheries. This case study highlights an easily adopted model for a fishing/ tourism alliance that strengthens the viability of fishing communities facing the effects of climate change. For tourists, this means being treated to delicious, high-quality seafood while helping build economic and en¬vironmental resilience in the communities where they choose to vacation. For fishers who rely on ocean resources facing increased stress from climate change, it provides a framework for introducing sustainable sea¬food to the public in a nonthreatening setting where they are receptive to the message.
Masyarakat dan Perikanen Indonesia (MDPI), roughly translated as “Communities and Fisheries of Indonesia,” supports the fishing indus¬try with sustainability projects and on-the-ground implementation. They also work with seafood buyers and distributors to identify what aspects of sustainability and traceability they are interested in, so they can tailor their programs to meet the needs of the market and get the most benefit for the fishing communities with which they work.
The Origins of MDPI
In 2010, Anova Food, an international supplier of fresh and frozen sea¬food, launched a pilot program in a fishing village in Indonesia that would have far-reaching effects. The “Fishing & Living” program’s goal was to introduce local community-based fishers to a more sustainable and responsible kind of fishing, improving practices in longline fisheries and opening new markets for their sustainable catch.1 Fishing & Living’s novel approach was to not just address the environmental aspects of fisheries but also to promote local community development and the well-being of fishers. This comprehensive approach to sustainability won Anova’s Fishing & Living program a SeaWeb Seafood Champion Award for Innovation in 2015
Anova’s work started with teaching sustainable fishing concepts to local university students and placing them in permanently staffed Fisher Centers in small villages. These centers implemented social programs, conducted beach cleanups, prepared safety-at-sea guidebooks, raised conservation awareness, developed alternative livelihood programs, and created a pilot project for implementing fair trade standards for capture fisheries. One result was Indonesian Handline Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), certified through Fair Trade USA.3 Efforts beyond the water’s edge included donations to local schools and orphanages such as books, sporting equipment, water filtration systems, and English classes.
The World’s First Fair Trade Certified Wild-Caught Fishery
The pilot program was such a success that in 2013 it was spun off into an independent nonprofit organization called Masyarakat Dan Perikanan Indonesia (MDPI), or “Communities and Fisheries of Indonesia.”5 MDPI’s vision for a better future, like its parent organization, includes improving both the health of fisheries and the coastal communities that rely on them. The organization provides scientific, social, and community development activities for fishing communities, including sessions on sea¬food safety and quality, adopt-a-school events, and the implementation of clean-water systems in schools and orphanages.
Image 3.1.1 The Fair Trade Fisher association, Tuna Lestari (Everlasting Tuna), completing its first official meeting, voting and inauguration of association positions, Ambon Island, the Moluccas4
MDPI formed data management committees and fisheries data collection programs around Indonesia to gather information on interac¬tions with endangered, protected, and threatened species. MDPI also works with fisheries to improve traceability, development of localized management systems, and improvements to fishing methods through fisheries improve¬ment projects (FIPs). In 2014, a collaboration between MDPI and three fishers associations in the Moluccan Islands led to Moluccan Yellowfin Tuna becoming the first Fair Trade Certified™ wild-caught fish in the world.6
These successes are increasing the resilience of both fisheries and the fishers who depend on them as they confront the added stresses caused by climate change. They are all the more meaningful because they are taking
Image 3.1.2 Wildan and Imran, MDPI enumerators, collecting data from a handline tuna fisher in Maumere, East Nusa Tenggara7
Image 3.1.3 Stephani of MDPI training a group of new data collection enumerators in Buru Island, the Moluccas8
place in a small island developing state, as well as an area of the world known for pirate fishing and human rights abuses in the international fishing fleet.
A Fisheries Catch-22
To maintain the progress they had made, MDPI managers had to convince more local fisheries to work toward certification. To do so, they needed to demonstrate that increasing sustainability also increased access to markets. Until the number of fisheries achieving certification increased, however, the volume of fish was too small to interest international buyers. It was in this context that, in February 2015, a representative of MDPI received a scholarship to participate in the SeaWeb Seafood Summit in New Orleans.
The Summit is an annual international conference that brings to¬gether global representatives from the seafood industry with leaders from the conservation community, academia, government, and the media. To¬gether they work to define success and advance solutions in sustainable seafood through dialogue and partnerships that lead to a seafood market¬place that is environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable.
The scholarship recipient was Momo Kochen, Director of Research and Programs at MDPI. Her experience implementing grassroots campaigns in a developing nation brought a valuable perspective to the summit, where she spoke on a panel entitled “Certification, Traceability, and Consumer Awareness in the Global South.” She also represented MDPI at the annual Seafood Champion Awards, where they were finalists in the Vision category.
During each summit, scholars such as Momo are paired with mentors who help them overcome obstacles in their efforts to build sustainable fish¬eries in their regions of the world. One of Momo’s goals for her scholarship was to meet and learn from others implementing FIPs. She was teamed with the president of the nonprofit organization Centro Desarrollo Y Pesca Sustentable (Center for Development and Sustainable Fisheries),9 Ernesto Godelman, who was able to give her the benefit of his experience imple¬menting FIPs in Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Panama, and Guatemala.
The issue Momo was most passionate about was finding markets for fish from traceability pilot programs that MDPI had put in place in Indonesia. Her ongoing efforts to find buyers for her sustainable seafood—including a trip to the United States where she spoke in person to retailers across the country—had yielded no solutions. “Every buyer was willing, but each wanted someone else to take the first step,” she lamented. Without an estab¬lished market for MDPI’s sustainably caught fish, it would be an uphill battle to expand sustainable practices to more fisheries in Indonesia. “The fishermen need to see a benefit” for their commitment to sustainability, she insisted.
From Boat to Bali: A Win–Win Situation
On the second day of the summit, Momo was introduced to Ned Bell, executive chef at Four Seasons Restaurant in Vancouver, Canada. Ned is a passionate sustainable seafood advocate. His restaurant leads by example: their seafood menu is deemed 100 percent sustainable through
Image 3.1.4 Harjo, MDPI enumerator, interviewing a fisherman on the details of his trip, Buru Island, the Moluccas10
its consistency with the recommendations of Vancouver Aquarium’s Ocean Wise11 program, and the staff is fully educated about sustainable seafood. Ned is also the founder of Chefs for Oceans,12 a campaign to engage and inspire chefs and communities to source seafood sustainably. One of Chefs for Oceans’ strategies is to encourage restaurants to source directly from sustainable small-scale producers.
Ned and Momo spoke at length during the summit, and Momo returned to Indonesia with a plan. She has now established alliances with a growing number of high-end restaurants in Bali, Indonesia, to purchase MDPI’s certified seafood and promote it to their clientele of affluent Indonesians and international tourists. As this plan expands, it will serve as a bridge to allow small certified fisheries to grow, and newly certified fisheries to realize a premium on their sustainability efforts.
Masyarakat Dan Perikanan Indonesia brings the fishing and tourism sec¬tors together to help communities overcome the threats of climate change. Meanwhile, the Caribbean, with its many high-end resorts, is well placed to benefit from a communications campaign similar to MDPI’s and those SeaWeb has implemented elsewhere. This includes using prominent chefs as spokespersons to protect at-risk species and achieve both market-based and policy solutions in support of sustainability. SeaWeb’s work with chefs, caterers, and restaurateurs has demonstrated the valuable role culinary leaders can play in advancing seafood sustainability, not only by sourcing seafood sustainably and through the choice of species they serve, but also by using their status to educate consumers.
1. Fishing & Living. (2016). Improving Life in the Fishing Community. Available at: http://fishing-living.org/#sthash.03Y4r1d6.dpbs.
2. SeaWeb. (2015). Seafood Champion Award. Anova Food’s Fishing and Living. Available at: http://www.seafoodchampions.org/2015-seafood¬champions/anova-foods-fishing-living/#more-365.
3. Fair Trade USA. (2016). Producer Profiles: Coral Triangle Processors-Malukus. Available at: http://fairtradeusa.org/producer-profiles/ coral-triangle-processors-malukus.
4. Image Source: MDPI.
5. Masyarakat Dan Perikanan Indonesia. (2016). Who we are. Available at: http://mdpi.or.id/index.php/about-us.
6. Fair Trade USA. (2016). Op cit.
7. Image Source: MDPI.
8. Image Source: MDPI.
9. Centro Desarrollo y Pesca Sustentable (CeDePesca). (2016). Home page. Available at: http://cedepesca.net/.
10. Image Source: MDPI.
11. Vancouver Aquarium. (2016). Ocean Wise. Available at: http://www .oceanwise.ca.
12. Chefs for Oceans. (2016). Mission. Available at: http://chefsforoceans .com.